Cambodia
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Prime Minister: Hun Sen
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currency: Riel (KH)
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Cambodia profile
a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap
Cambodia history
Most Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers, descendants of the Angkor Empire that extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith between the 10th and 13th centuries. Attacks by the Thai and Cham (from present-day Vietnam) weakened the empire, ushering in a long period of decline. The king placed the country under French protection in 1863, and it became part of French Indochina in 1887. Following Japanese occupation in World War II, Cambodia gained full independence from France in 1953. In April 1975, after a five-year struggle, Communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh and evacuated all cities and towns. At least 1.5 million Cambodians died from execution, forced hardships, or starvation during the Khmer Rouge regime under POL POT. A December 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside, began a 10-year Vietnamese occupation, and touched off almost 13 years of civil war. The 1991 Paris Peace Accords mandated democratic elections and a ceasefire, which was not fully respected by the Khmer Rouge. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy under a coalition government. Factional fighting in 1997 ended the first coalition government, but a second round of national elections in 1998 led to the formation of another coalition government and renewed political stability. The remaining elements of the Khmer Rouge surrendered in early 1999. Some of the surviving Khmer Rouge leaders have been tried or are awaiting trial for crimes against humanity by a hybrid UN-Cambodian tribunal supported by international assistance. Elections in July 2003 were relatively peaceful, but it took one year of negotiations between contending political parties before a coalition government was formed. In October 2004, King Norodom SIHANOUK abdicated the throne and his son, Prince Norodom SIHAMONI, was selected to succeed him. Local elections were held in Cambodia in April 2007, with little of the pre-election violence that preceded prior elections. National elections in July 2008 were relatively peaceful, as were commune council elections in June 2012.
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Conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
Conventional short form: Cambodia
Local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea (phonetic pronunciation)
Local short form: Kampuchea
Formerly known as: Khmer Republic, Democratic Kampuchea, People's Republic of Kampuchea, State of Cambodia
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Cambodia's capital city is Phnom Penh
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Cambodia Constitution:
promulgated 21 September 1993
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Cambodia population growth rate: 1.687%
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Cambodia highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m
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Cambodia lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
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About 20% of Cambodia's land is arable.
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Mekong River is the Longest River in Cambodia
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Cambodia birth rate is 25 births/1,000 population
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Cambodia infant mortality rate is 54 deaths/1,000 live births
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Cambodia fertility rate is 2.72 children born/woman
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Cambodia climate:
tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation
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Top 10 cities of Cambodia with populations (2012 est.) are:
1. Phnom Penh: 2,234,566
2. Ta Khmao: 195,895
3. Sisophon: 181,396
4. Battambang: 180,853
5. Siem Reap: 174,265
6. Kampong Cham: 118,242
7. Sihanoukville: 89,447
8. Kampong Speu: 54,505
9. Kampot: 48,274
10. Kampong Chhnang: 43,130
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Cambodia ethnic groups:
Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%
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Cambodia Exports:
clothing, timber, rubber, rice, fish, tobacco, footwear
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Cambodia Imports:
petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials, machinery, motor vehicles, pharmaceutical products
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bicameral, consists of the Senate (61 seats; 2 members appointed by the monarch, 2 elected by the National Assembly, and 57 elected by parliamentarians and commune councils; members serve five-year terms) and the National Assembly (123 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Administrative Divisions:
23 provinces (khett, singular and plural) and 1 municipality (krong, singular and plural)

provinces:

1. Banteay Meanchey
2. Battambang
3. Kampong Cham
4. Kampong Chhnang
5. Kampong Speu
6. Kampong Thom
7. Kampot
8. Kandal
9. Kep
10. Koh Kong
11. Kratie
12. Mondolkiri
13. Oddar Meanchey
14. Pailin
15. Preah Vihear
16. Prey Veng
17. Pursat
18. Ratanakiri
19. Siem Reap
20. Sihanoukville
21. Stung Treng
22. Svay Rieng
23. Takeo

municipalities:

1. Phnom Penh (Phnum Penh)
Political parties and leaders:
Cambodian People's Party (CPP) - CHEA SIM

Cambodian National Rescue Party (NRP) - SAM RANGSI also spelled SAM RAINSY

National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC) - KEV PUT REAKSMEI

Nationalist Party (NP) former Norodom Ranariddh Party (NRP) - SAO RANY